Athens Sparta

Greek culture in 400-500 B.C.E. achieved greatness through two city-states, called Sparta and Athens.To better understand the interaction between Sparta and Athens and their desire for Greece to be a strong nation, it is imperative to know the situation of these two city-states in the early 400's B.C.E.Throughout this essay I will briefly describe Athenian and Spartan social structure in the Classical age.In particular, their culture, military, and the role of women within society.
Athens had a democratic government and a dynamic society.They were culturally open to trade, painting, sculpture, architecture, literature, poetry, and philosophy.Athens had become the second most powerful Greek city-state because of their wealth, trade, navy, large population, and great harmony of art and learning.Athens was made up of three distinct classes, slaves, citizens, and foreigners.Each class had a specific list of duties and responsibilities.Wealthy citizens paid to attend formalized schools in the gymnasium.Citizens could own land and slaves, but not all did because they differed in wealth.Also, citizens had equal formal rights, and participated in the year round religious festivals.Slaves and foreigners, on the other hand, did trade work and housework, but were denied citizenship.Due to the Athenian democratic government, there was a wider range of participation from the citizens.Many of them participated in public election and lotteries.
Sparta had a political form of organization known as an Oligarchy, which consisted of five ephors and two kings who served as high priests and leaders in war.Their government was founded on the principle that the life of individuals, from the moment of birth, belonged to the state.Sparta hoped to ensure that only those who were physically fit would survive to become the best soldiers for the city-state.Sparta prided itself not on art and learning, but on the brave …

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