Educational planning is the process of examining the current system of education in order to identify areas that need improvement. Planning is also defined as; The systematic process of establishing a need and then working out the best way to meet the need, within a strategic framework that enables you to identify priorities and determines your operational principles. Formally (1993). Planning means thinking about the future so that you can do something about it now. This doesn’t necessarily mean that everything will go according to plan. It probably will not.
But if you have planned properly, your ability to adjust without improvising your overall purpose will be that much greater. In the absence of planning all the activities of the school will become meaningless as they will carry no objective. Planning is a big term that includes a number of different kinds of activities; it is not obvious that when you plan you will automatically implement the objectives and goals set. Planning comes in when there is a need for change or continuation In most cases of projects or solving of problems. Planning may be on a short or long duration depending on the need.
Planning implies thinking about the future and trying to assume control ever future events by organizing and managing resources so that they cater to the successful completion of the objectives set forth. Without proper planning, projects or programs may be implemented at the wrong time or in the wrong manner and result in poor outcomes, as such you cannot implement if you have not planned but you can plan without implementing. ”Implementation is the realization of an application, or execution of a plan, idea, model design, specification, standard and algorithm.
Implementation is actually an act that must follow preliminary thinking in order for something to actually happen. Implementation is a process of translating a pronounced policy statement or policy document into activities that will have an impact on the target group. ” Sanders (1994:97). Implementation actually involves putting the planned activities into action such as the schemes of work which is the medium-term plan that gives ideas on how teachers might deliver the course. It is up to the teacher to implement the courses planned for the term, some succeed while others do not manage.
Planning for effective school management involves formulation of clear goals and objectives, hence we c ay planning consists Of deciding in advance what the school or department wants to do and how they want to do it, on the other hand implementation putting the plans into action. States that ”implementation i: often a challenging activity that those who are implementing should be well focused” implementation requires adequate personnel and the financial resources and the administration capability to achieve the desired plans. TTT following activities have to be considered when planning.
Describe the problem; you need an accurate description of the problem. Select the intended projects; an intended project or group is the projects or programs the plan is designed to influence. Select the setting; the setting for a plan is where activities will occur. Set goals and objectives; your goal should be a broad statement of what you want to achieve. Objectives should be measurable and attainable given the resources you have. Finally you implement; you have developed your materials and activities. You’ve secure resources and personnel. You’ve trained your staff. Now it’s time to implement your plans. Thompson (1998).
The problem has been analyzed, landing has taken place, objectives and goals have been set now it is time t implement the work plan. This is where factors that hinder effective planning in school management come in, such as financial problems, time and human resource. Due to these factors planning does not mean you will definitely implement because planning is also a challenge on its own. WHO (2005). It i: important to think about the benefits of planning because there will be mar excuses for not doing it and for just getting on with the work. Sometimes it seems easier not to plan, because good planning takes time and money.
Buy if you do it well, it is worth the investment. There is an expression that, Web http://www. Civics. Org. States ”failing to plan is planning to fail. ” While it is r always true that those who fail to plan will eventually fail in their endeavourer there is strong evidence to suggest that having a plan leads to greater effectiveness and efficiency. Therefore it is the role of the leadership in the organization to make sure that the planning is useful and gets implemented When implementing there is need of considering necessary logistics like public support, support from politicians and government.
It is not always the, case that a plan will be implemented; therefore implementation may take a different course of action from the planned activities. For example, you are group of teachers with experience in guidance and counseling of pupils. HOLY started out with an idea about a program that would train and advice pupils on how to excel in academics and future careers. You thought you would train these pupils, advising on such things as studying attending classes being disciplined.
However, when you do the problem analysis, you find that he underlying cause of most of Poor performance among the pupils is with the teachers not delivering quality teaching methodologies and curricula. In fact, these pupils have well trained and experienced teachers of guidance at counseling who do a good job in providing support and care. What they are not skilled in is how to deliver teaching methods and the curricula. This is not your area of expertise either. What do you do? Do you go ahead and do what you had planned? Or do you look at ways of expanding your group to include the necessary skills that will accommodate teachers as well.
As such implementation may change or sway away from the plan, which now agrees with the assertion that planning in one thing and implementation is another. Daddies (1997) adds on by saying that naturally, a plan should be subject to modification. In the light of the experiences gained during the implementation process, an education plan could be modified to conform to the socio-economic trends and needs of the system at that particular time and place. Furthermore Gigabit (1999:102) states that ”Circumstances related to implementation constraints cause policy modifications to take place.
In the same vein plans may change due to wrong timing and lack of resources. The quality of those plans, programs and projects, and how well resources are used, are also critical factors for success. During implementation there should be aspects of policy decision and subsequent modifications by planners. Implementation problems are often greatly under-estimated during the stage of planning, therefore implementation is guided by a plan which is subject to change. For example, the school where was pursuing my degree Teaching Practice from January to April 2014, they had a work plan of innovating one block of the boys hostel.
Objectives and goals were set for the hostel to finish in two months’ time. The group members from the school management were chosen to oversee the project and the plan was successful. Part of the money and materials were to be funded by the government and some from the PTA The project was not implemented as planned because the resources the school management, PTA and what the government funded was not enough to implement the set goals and objectives of finishing to renovate the hostel block in two months’ time. Implementing a plan takes a variety of resources.rnnn’,’Management’),